Iron Maiden

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I bought my first Iron Maiden record in 1982. “The Number of the Beast” garnered great reviews from the heavy metal community.

Here in America it also received threats from church officials as being an agent of satanism. Heavy metal music does a lot of satanic material. It just fits the genre so well. This kind of music is a tonic for many fans. I love complex guitar based music. Soaring vocals are a huge component as well.

Circus magazine wrote a response to the controversy. The article explained Iron Maiden are not devil worshippers, just devil-may-care.

I was a fan for life after that era. Their mascot Eddie, a re-animated ghoul, appears on every album cover. Created by Derek Riggs, he assumes different types and styles that fit each album’s themes and concepts.

From their eponymous debut in album to their first double studio album in 2015, the band’s music has evolved from traditional metal to a more progressive groove.

Their line-up changed several times. Original vocalist Paul DiAnno quit due to substance abuse. His replacement was Samson singer Bruce Dickinson who turned out to be their ticket to global stardom.

For two albums, Bruce was replaced by Blayze Bayley. Their 10th and 11th albums were as good as anything they had done before but fans did not like this change.

In the year 2000 the band made a huge comeback with Bruce’s return. Guitarist Adrian Smith also came back. This current line-up of the group proved to be their best.

Since the year 2000 Iron Maiden are Bruce Dickinson (Vocals), Steve Harris (Bass), Adrian Smith (Guitar), Dave Murray (Guitar), Janick Jers (Guitar), Nicko McBrain (Drums).

The past 20 years of a nearly 50 year career have produced critically acclaimed records like “Brave New World”, “A Matter of Life and Death”, “The Final Frontier”, and “The Book of Souls”.

This followed their now classic albums of the 1980’s: “Killers”, “The Number of the Beast”, “Piece of Mind”, “Powerslave”, “Somewhere in Time”, and “Seventh Son of a Seventh Son “.

A documentary film, “Flight 666”, follows Maiden on a record setting world tour in which lead singer Bruce Dickinson piloted the band’s plane called Ed Force One.

Around the world Maiden’s fan base grew not only larger but younger too. In my opinion Iron Maiden have the best fans.

In the past four decades you will have seen people wearing Iron Maiden shirts or patches or bracelets or hats.

In 1982, Eddie was a demon spawn. Then in 1983 he was condemned to the rubber room. In 1984 he was an entombed pharaoh. In 1986 he became a cyborg. In 1988 he became the Seventh Son of a Seventh Son.

Now in their fifth decade, Iron Maiden are nominated to the Rock Hall of Fame.

Not seeking this award, the band will continue to empower their massive audience that spans the globe with their upcoming seventeenth studio album.

Bassist Steve Harris founded the group on Christmas day 1975! He said at the end of each decade that Maiden had another ten albums in them. And their sixteen studio records all have songs that became big concert classics.

This is a snapshot song list of my favorites from the band’s ongoing career:

Remember Tomorrow

Strange World

Transylvania

Iron Maiden

Wrathchild

Running Free

Sanctuary

Murders In The Rue Morgue

Another Life

Innocent Exile

Prodigal Son

Killers

Phantom of the Opera

Die With Your Boots On

The Prisoner

The Number Of The Beast

Run To The Hills

Revelations

Hallowed Be Thy Name

Flight Of Icarus

Where Eagles Dare

The Trooper

Still Life

To Tame A Land (inspired by Dune)

Sun And Steel

Aces High

Two Minutes To Midnight

Rime Of The Ancient Mariner

Powerslave

Sea Of Madness

Somewhere In Time

Wasted Years

Stranger In A Strange Land

Moonchild

Infinite Dreams

The Clairvoyant

Seventh Son Of A Seventh Son

The Evil That Men Do

No Prayer For The Dying

Bring Your Daughter To The Slaughter*

Holy Smoke

Public Enema Number One

Be Quick Or Be Dead

From Here To Eternity

Afraid To Shoot Strangers

Wasting Love

Judas Be My Guide

Weekend Warrior

Fear Of The Dark

Sign Of The Cross

Lord Of The Flies

Man On The Edge

The Aftermath

Judgement Of Heaven

The Unbeliever

Futureal

The Angel And The Gambler

The Clansman

The Educated Fool

Wildest Dreams

Rainmaker

Dance of Death

Paschendale

The Wicker Man

Brave New World

Blood Brothers

Out Of The Silent Planet

Different World

Brighter Than A Thousand Suns

The Pilgrim

The Reincarnation Of Benjamin Breeg

Lord Of Light

Satellite 15…The Final Frontier

El Dorado

The Alchemist

Isle Of Avalon

Star blind

The Talisman

The Man Who Would Be King

When The Wild Wind Blows

If Eternity Should Fail

Speed Of Light

The Book Of Souls

Death Or Glory

Tears Of A Clown

Empire Of The Clouds

*The only single to reach #1 on the chart.

Up the Irons!

The list of songs above reflects how well Iron Maiden have covered their horror, science fiction, fantasy, and historical literary interests.

Their songwriting is done now by each band member. Steve Harris is their lead songwriter who composed epic songs lasting a minimum of six minutes on every record. Frontman Bruce Dickinson wrote the longest track in their history so far. “Empire Of The Clouds” runs 18 minutes!

Arguably the most epic of bands, I hope Maiden get elected to the rock hall of fame this year. They deserve this honor.

Dearest readers I leave you with a few of my favorite versions of mascot Eddie:

The Star Wars Archives

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The Star Wars Archives 1977—1983 by Paul Duncan. Taschen 40th Anniversary Edition. Hardcover. 512 pages. $25

Taschen is an art book publisher founded in 1980 by Benedikt Taschen in Cologne, Germany. As of January 2017, Taschen is co-managed by Benedikt and his eldest daughter, Marlene Taschen.

This year the world renowned publisher celebrates 40 years of printing a library’s worth of art collections that span popular culture.

In The Star Wars book the original trilogy of films is deftly explored. Anything you ever wanted to know regarding the conception and production of these now classic titles are here. Despite the hefty page count the size is quite portable.

Within each section there are well over a hundred color and b&w photos. Storyboards, models, miniatures, sets, blueprints, and artists are exhibited.

This volume is like holding the best Star Wars museum in your hands. George Lucas tells his story from modest beginnings to become the creator of one of the most treasured brands in the world.

So this partnership with Taschen matches two of the great brands with spectacular results.

Turning each glossy page you get so much fascinating insights into the process of making films at the highest level.

I will reveal just a single bit I loved discovering here for the first time. The rest you can find for yourself.

The cost of Episode V The Empire Strikes Back was so great that if it had failed there would be no future for Lucasfilm nor the special effects company Industrial Light & Magic! Every dime from the first film went into making.

The details of this book are impressive. Casting decisions, the construction of sets on location and sound stages, conceptual art, and costume designs are examined.

You will come away with a complete understanding of the level of expertise required to make feature films. I think even lay people will appreciate perhaps for the first time that our greatest achievements do not just happen.

There are a vast group of dedicated artisans that make a potential audience think the results are effortless. In the case of Star Wars they made us all feel like we really did travel to a galaxy far, far, away in a time long ago.

Congratulations to the artisans at Taschen for producing such fine works. Here’s to your next 40 years!

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David Bowie Icon

David Bowie ICON; Published by ACC ART Books; 181 Pages. http://www.iconicimages.net; http://www.accartbooks.com; Picture Editing:
Stephen Reid, Daniel Rachel
and Carrie Kania
Interviews and Text:
Daniel Rachel and Carrie Kania; Project Editor:
Carrie Kania; Publisher, ACC Art Books
James Smith
Editor
Susannah Hecht
Design
Craig Holden
Production
Stephen Mackinlay

Photographs by
FERNANDO ACEVES
BRIAN ARIS
PHILIPPE AULIAC
ALEC BYRNE
KEVIN CUMMINS
CHALKIE DAVIES
JUSTIN DE VILLENEUVE
VERNON DEWHURST
GAVIN EVANS
GERALD FEARNLEY
LYNN GOLDSMITH
GREG GORMAN
ANDREW KENT
MARKUS KLINKO
GEOFF MacCORMACK
JANET MACOSKA
TERRY O’NEILL
DENIS O’REGAN
NORMAN PARKINSON
MICK ROCK
JOHN SCARISBRICK
STEVE SCHAPIRO
BARRY SCHULTZ
RAY STEVENSON
MASAYOSHI SUKITA
Introduction by
GEORGE UNDERWOOD

This is the finest collection of photographs you will ever find depicting perhaps the only singular rock icon to rival the visual power of Elvis. From the very start of his career David Bowie wanted to become a star. He did not covet rock stardom. No. He aimed higher. We should all be grateful.

The editors at ACC make clear this is not a complete set. That would encompass thousands of pages.

What we have in our hands with this tome is a representation of fine rock photography from 25 of the most legendary artists in this field.

If there is one common thread running through these pages its the sessions for each studio record being seen without their final texts or titles.

David Bowie represented so many different avenues of creativity it’s impossible to pigeonhole him into any category or frame. Every picture in this book will leave you with an impression that is yours alone to decipher.

For this is the goal of a genuine artitst. To keep you guessing. To keep you wondering. To leave you utterly astonished.

The team that made this book possible attempted a seriously daunting feat. They got a group of the world’s finest photographers to contribute their best work to a singular project.

This work shows the many sides of David Bowie from his debut through his glam starpower to his thin white duke class and the many projects that drove his creativity and genius.

This resulting coffee table prize is a success. If ever there was a time we needed art of this caliber it’s now at the end of 2020.

Evan’s Gate Adds Website!

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As you have seen over the summer in this blog, one of my greatest interests and passions has been taking photographs of my beloved New York City. Therefore, it is with enormous pleasure that I introduce my new website evanwarrenphoto.com

The website is made up of approximately 50 of my most favorite photos of NYC, focusing on its architecture, landscape and nature – and also includes a link to this blog that will be updated with each entry. It is a true reflection of my artistic personality.

If any of you want a wall-sized (or other-sized) print of any of these photographs, please contact me directly via my email, and I will be happy to give you an estimate of its cost. But, most of all, this website has been created so you can enjoy these particular shots whenever you’d like to look at them.

Thank you all very much!

The Puck building in New York/Photo by Evan Warren.

ELW Photography #10

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This week features a day trip to Long Island. The itinerary was an indoor flea market, an outlet mall, and the town of Port Jefferson.

Day tripping

The outlets had great bargains including a windbreaker for Fall and a bundle of books at a discount.

Port Jefferson offered Red Shirt Comics and seafood at PJ’s Lobster House where we dined indoors for only the second time since March!

As of this writing indoor dining will return to Manhattan on September 30th.

Women’s Rights

2020 is the Centennial of the Vote for Women in America. New York dedicated its first statue of real women’s rights pioneers on Literary Walk.

Also marking the 200th Anniversary of Susan B. Anthony’s birth, this new monument is long overdue.

Central Park Wonders

I took a nature walk through the ramble recently. This is an area of the park with interconnected paths that twist through scenic woods. Bird watching here is fantastic.

A young Jazz Saxophonist played. A group of guys enjoyed a game of beach volleyball. And the police keep guard over a statue of Christopher Columbus.

The Conservancy takes great care of Central Park. Maintaining the lawns, trees, benches, and the rest every day.

This Summer has been hot and sunny most of the time. My husband and I are staying put in New York for now. These days I love my city. Have you looked at the weather across the country lately?

Park Summer

The Conservatory Garden

Located at E. 105th Street & 5th Avenue across from The Museum of the City of New York, this garden is a treasure with flowers, romantic paths and fountains placed well. A quiet zone perfect for escape from the chaos outside.

9–11–2020

19 years after the attacks on U.S. soil of 3 American planes used as missiles destroying the Twin Towers, damaging The Pentagon, and crashing in Pennsylvania killing over 3,000 people, Corona Virus has killed over 200,000 Americans.

We will all pause to remember 9/11. But never forget that then & now we had a President not duly elected by the people.

Dear Readers, until next week…

ELW Photography #5

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July 31, 2020

I was just thinking how we were told back in January to write out the full 2-0-2-0 when dating important docs. Who knew that it would be almost exclusively applied to receiving unemployment benefits.

My Dear Readers: Updates from New York City. July ends. USA continues to deny the impact of Covid—19 despite the largest recorded drop in its economy in history!

If you reside outside of North America you may have heard about how poor our safety net is here. This is showing up now during this unprecedented crisis.

I only glance at the headlines each morning. It takes until late in the day to realize how much more our country has slid in the eyes of the world.

New York City has sport once again with its expensive corporate stadiums empty. Overpaid athletes are playing with piped in crowd noise.

Several athletes in baseball are now sick. Games are getting postponed. I think baseball should cancel the season.

No Broadway/ Off—Broadway theater. No museums. No movie theaters. Broadway and Hollywood had both reached their commercial summit. I do not believe this will happen again.

If we have cinemas the interior of those spaces will have to be reinvented along with Broadway and Off—Broadway theaters.

Personally, my fear is that America will be vunerable like never before to a new authoritarian reality. Already the President floated the proto-fascist notion of delaying the Fall Election. This never happened in America before this con man took office.

People are waking to see how much damage has been inflicted upon regular people over decades of blindly adding police to streets. This has resulted in the brutality seen in recent days.

The people were empowered to fend off the awful notions of power hungry office holders. Our struggle for greater Democracy will continue.

With such heavy issues hovering over us I refuse to conform to the reactionary nature of certain friends and family. I just read “Twilight Of Democracy” by the historian Anne Applegate, seen below in the picture, argues strongly for Democratic ideals. She is hopeful Americans will reject the anti—democratic platform of Donald Trump.

Highly Recommended to everyone who cares about Democracy.

My photography is an outlet to express what I see daily to counter the ugly forces at play in today’s world.

Despite it all I am having a lovely Summer. What else can I do? November will be chilly. And by then our biggest Election will be upon us.

Museums

5th Avenue from E. 86th Street to E. 103rd is called Museum Mile. There are several along this route on the East Side. The Museum of the City of New York, The MET, The Guggenheim and The Jewish Museum are my favourites. I took pictures of their facades over the past three months. Devoid of crowds. A silence. Mourning? Will they come back as strong as before the shutdown?

The Museum of the City of New York, The Cooper-Hewitt Design Museum, and The Jewsih Museum are seen below:

Candids

Another component of taking images on walks are the people you see in moments. So distracted are these strangers that I could not resist capturing them in time. What follows are the first results of my observations.

August Arrives Tomorrow

Major League Baseball attempted to start a shortened season but finds itself in a bind now that the Miami Marlins team is ill with Covid—19. Then the Phillies were struck then the St. Louis Cardinals.

All of the hot spot states are only beginning to require masks and think about shutting down again.

The Republican party is making this crisis a partisan issue; their leader floats proto—fascist ideas daily.

Here in New York City while we have settled into our Phase 4 lives a new month starts tomorrow!

What will it bring? Will we learn?

Until next week Dear Readers!

Stay in good health.

Wear a mask.

ELW Photography #2

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I posted my first ELW Gallery about a month ago! Time flies even in a pandemic. Here is a brief update from New York City….

July 10, 2020—New York Phase III—Outdoor Dining Began this past Monday. Indoor Dining was cancelled. All events in the city are off through September.

A few words before presenting my second gallery of photos from the city that now sleeps. Yes, there are more cars again, more people not concerned enough about Covid.

The young will pay a hefty price for their natural feelings of invincibility.

Our politicians are challenged on more than just the Covid front. Race and Justice are now exposed again.

People are justifiable in their needs during this crisis.

I have walked almost every day to keep sane myself.

New Yorkers need more physical space.

I hope my photos of a mostly empty Central Park help you to escape as I did for a little while…

Welcome to the second gallery of photography featuring images of a newly quiet New York City.

What’s Normal?

As I stroll around the park, walk down 5th Avenue, and any number of differing paths I note a strong feeling of loss. There is also feelings of hope and escape from a newly quieted city.

New Eyes

As a trained photographer you see the world around you with new eyes every day. During this period of extreme crisis this ability is heightened. The next set of images was taken from the July 4th Holiday and beyond.

Architecture of Central Park

I always take notice of details that seem to be missed by people busy with every activity except looking. The interior of the park has gorgeous designs both natural and man made.

Conditions Change

Tropical Storm Fay Is Pounding The City Today: 3 Inches Of Rain Expected. We need it badly.

Keep Your Distance

Thank you Dear Readers for visiting Evan’s Gate!

See you next week!

ELW Photography

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Dedication

To my beloved Brian, who’s never ending encouragement and support made these galleries and this blog possible.

Dear readers this week I begin to feature my photography as the sole content of the blog. Living in New York City gives you a lot of opportunity to create images. Everyday people make the best extras.

During this time of crisis I felt like taking more photos around my neighborhood & Central Park. To preserve for all—time a version of this fabled town nobody ever expected to see.

I hope you enjoy seeing these pictures today and in the Summer season ahead…

Please be assured that other posts will be made during this period.

As of this writing New York is in Phase 1 of re—opening. This means construction, retail, and some outside dining have returned. Retail stores must limit capacity with curbside pick—up service.

As a lifelong New Yorker this pandemic has been nothing short of life—changing. Walking around my part of town has preserved my sanity. My loving husband, Brian has been the core of why I can remain whole during this awful period.

Dear readers, thank you for spending part of your day here on Evan’s Gate! More photography from yours truly will be posted. Stay healthy and safe. Remember love and healing are the forces that will get us all through this time.

Peace.

Album Cover Art In Our Digital Age

Since the 1960s the covers of long-playing records have undergone many changes.

Before the Beatles and Stones most records were just simple photographic images of the band leaders or crooners of the period.

During the 1960s when the counter-culture movement arrived albums underwent a major alteration.

The new artists had album covers that were more than just their mugs in close-up.

Before I continue let me be clear about what the cover of a record means to me.

I think covers are a canvas to be used to draw in would be listeners. It does not have to be literal or easy to understand.

After decades of releases before the internet we have thousands of covers to gawk at in pleasure and disgust.

The images can excite, enlighten, and become stand alone pieces of art.

In some cases they can also offend certain sensibilities.

The Beatles’ infamous butcher cover was censored by their record company upon release.

Capitol records pulled this album from circulation after distributors complained the cover image was revolting. If you can find this album with the offending picture it’s worth a lot today.

Guns N Roses biggest seller, “Appetite For Destruction” had its cover banned.

It featured a cartoon image of a flower girl being raped by a robot.

Guns N Rose’s original art got banned by their label. The cross and skull art is the cover now.

The aforementioned covers became highly valued on the market for collectors.

Their rarity increased the value of original prints. Digital representation of album art will never be valuable.

Many classic (old) rock groups hired artists to paint, photograph, and collage their cover art.

Roger Dean, Derek Riggs, and the firm Hipgnosis are good examples of why artists commission painters, graphic designers and illustrators.

The progressive rock group Yes compiled a catalog of music along with covers by Roger Dean.

His dreamscapes were colorful, fantastic, and surreal. This fit well with Yes’ music.

Fragile by Yes features the above art by Roger Dean to promote a greener planet.

Derek Riggs painted the first 8 Iron Maiden album covers.

His art became instantly part of the band’s image.

Each cover features the mascot Eddie, a decaying corpse reanimated back to life.

The art collective Hipgnosis was hired by British art rock icons Pink Floyd.

The indelible photographic elements are imprinted on the memory of any classic rock fan forever.

Their cover images include a cow for Atom Mother, a flying pig for Animals, and a prism for Dark Side of the Moon.

The records pictured above included extras you cannot enjoy digitally.

Styx and Pink Floyd had posters within their sleeves.

One more artist I want to mention is Michael Doret a designer, lettering artist, and illustrator based in Los Angeles, California.

He has created logos, album covers, magazine covers, and art for various brands in media, advertising, and sports.

The illustration he created for Kiss in 1978 was so eye catching the band worked with him again in the 21st Century!

Rock N Roll Over by Kiss was the last album in which all four original members performed. Ace Frehley had no writing credit.

Sonic Boom was released in 2009. The art is sort of a follow up to its 1970s predecessor.

On vinyl the album was issued with vinyl platters in six different colors.

The Rock N Roll Over album was reissued in 2015, complete with a sheet of full color stickers replicating the cover art.

The art is the original size meant for public view when it’s on a physical item.

Digital cannot transmit how vivid these covers actually appear.

Many albums have gatefold sleeves. This means they open up to show a two panel artwork.

Queen used an image by scifi illustrator Frank Kelly for News of the World in 1977. A two panel gatefold is featured.

Today album frames are sold as a means to display album cover art.

There are many examples of art for record covers. I have covered a few of my favorites for this article.

Keep in mind none of this art looks great in digital form. In physical presence you must stop and stare.

Record albums are cherished items. The extra goodies inside like posters are really cool too.

To be fair, digital music files can show the art. It’s tiny and trapped under the glass of your smart device.

MP3 files can become corrupted. I have had to stop my PC many times due to bad playback.

Records force you to take better care of your music.

It is much more of an experience to play an album on a turntable. You value it more. And the art is for keeps!

2019 Music And Books

This has been a strong year for metal.

Tool and Rammstein both returned after prolonged absences to deliver some of their original metal.

Reading is a commercial free pleasure that always offers too many worthy titles.

The long-awaited follow up to “The Handmaid’s Tale”, “The Testaments ” by Margaret Atwood brought an end to the dystopian saga.

Stephen King’s “The Institute” provided plenty suspense while Colson Whitehead’s “The Nickel Boys” examined the disparities of our penal system.

Here I briefly remind my kind readers to pick up a good read for a sharp mind.

Music first. In no particular order these are my favorites for 2019.

Top L-R: Tool and Opeth.
Bottom L-R: Candlemass, Rammstein, and Dragonforce

Rammstein/ Untitled the German steel unleashed their seventh studio effort this year. A minimal art image on the cover of an unstruck match allows for infinite interpretation.

Like previous records in the band’s arsenal they convey their messages in masterfully crafted bursts of metal blended with synth and industrial sounds.

I had to listen more than once to appreciate the sonic aptitude of the music involved here.

Despite the fact that all their songs are in German as a metalhead you come to realize it’s the most amazing synergy with this genre.

Tool/ Fear Inoculum had a lot riding on it’s success or failure. After 13 years the band delivered their most assured set.

Complete with epic length songs, interludes, and fantastic artwork it brought fans new and old into their fold.

Opeth/ In Cauda Venenum is an earthly delight from the doom metal stalwarts.

A funeral trip that engages a sense of hope beyond the grave. This is a band that remains focused from first riff to last outro growl. A true opus.

Dragonforce/ Extreme Power Metal I feel energized when I listen to the galeforce delivery here. Infused with great keyboards and tasty metal licks with thick choruses you too will hail our bright future.

Bright and colorful with brilliant musicianship, this album testifies to the kinetic energy inherent in power metal. It’s like Styx on steroids!

Candlemass/ The Door To Doom Death metal has had a strong year. This veteran group released quite a slab.

A tight set that runs 48 minutes. ‘Splendor Demon Majesty’ opens with a grand salute to the dark lord.

The record builds on all the classic instrumentation of Black Sabbath. A 1970s groove permeates. And this is a great result.

In fact, Sabbath founder Tony Iommi is featured on track 3—‘Astorolus-The Great,Octopus ‘. Sludgy and deep riffs abound.

Doomy choral backing vocals add to the impact. You will want to open this door many, many times!

Notable authors provided a feast for readers in 2019. Stephen King, Margaret Atwood, Colson Whitehead, Delia Owens, Dean Kuipers, and Elizabeth Gilbert made my cut.

Where The Crawdads Sing/Delia Owens has now been near or at the top of The New York Times bestseller list for over 60 weeks!

It deserves this honor. A great story of survival against all odds. A young girl’s family abandons her in the marsh.

She will grow up alone in their beach shack. And along the way she gets accused of murder.

Teaching herself to become self sufficient she teaches her would be enemies in the art of love and forgiveness.

City of Girls/ Elizabeth Gilbert is a story set in 1930’s and 1940’s New York City. A young woman drops out of an elite college.

Sent to live with her eccentric aunt in the city who runs a playhouse.

A friend recommended this novel. If you love theater you must check it out!

The Nickel Boys/ Colson Whitehead a story of two boys incarceration in a reform school in Florida. Unknown to out of state authorities the systemic horrors of Jim Crow are alive and well.

The Deer Camp/Dean Kuipers a memoir of growing up in rural Michigan.

How a boy grows up to become an activist in New York only to discover that his estranged father needs him for his own life. His family’s survival depends on it.

A great exploration of healthy masculine ideals.

The Institute/Stephen King Young Luke Ellis is abducted, his parents are killed, and that is just the start of his new life as a subject of the mysterious lab he is now a part.

King keeps the suspense gripping and the facts that cometo light illuminate our current horrifying climate of espionage and black site operations.

The Testaments/ Margaret Atwood the conclusion of the dystopian tale of women’s demotion back into handmaids.

Gilead’s secrets are about to be leaked globally. A runaway becomes the symbol of a final reckoning that will reduce this cruel social to rubble.